THE NEWS MEDIA INDUSTRY - Current status and trends

 

The news media are those elements of the mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public. These include print media (newspapers, newsmagazines), broadcast news (radio and television), and more recently the Internet (online newspapers, news blogs, etc.).

To fully understand the significance of the change that the Internet is bringing to News Journalism causes us to take a longer view of modern news media history. In doing so, we find that the formation of new countries and World Wars have not done much to change the industry, but technical changes in the Distribution of news has fundamentally changed news journalism. First a mechanical advance, then electronic, and now digital. Milestones that forced fundamental changes to the news industry include: the invention of the printing press; the telegraph; the Radio; Broadcast Television; Cable Television; The public Internet & Internet connected devices.

1400  Businessmen in Italian and German cities were compiling handwritten chronicles of important news events, and circulating them to their business connections.

1600  The idea of using a printing press for this material first appeared in Germany. The first gazettes appeared in German cities starting in 1605. By 1650, 30 German cities had active gazettes. In the following decades, the national governments in Paris and London began printing official newsletters.

1632  The first newspaper in France, the Gazette de France, was established.

1690 America's first newspaper, Publick Occurrences, Both Forreign and Domestick, is published in Boston.occurrences.jpg

1769 In Connecticut, Isaac Doolittle builds the first printing press made in American.

1791 The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution forbids Congress from making any law "abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press."

1844 A telegraph line stretches from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, Maryland, makes it possible for newspapers to offer timely coverage of distant events.

1849 A group of publishers start an organization to bring news from Europe. It will become the Associated Press (AP).

1887 George Hearst appoints his son William Randolph Hearst editor of the San Francisco Examiner.

1904 William Randolph Hearst stars the Los Angeles Examiner and the Boston American. He will eventually starts and buys papers in many American cities. By 1930, his holdings will include 28 newspapers.

1920 Radio station KDKA begins broadcasting regularly scheduled programs at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

1920's  Radio reporters appeared. The first event that received mass radio coverage was the "Scopes Monkey Trial" in 1925.

1930s  Networks organized news organizations. As many of you probably know, TV network news was really just a progression of radio news.

1940s  Both NBC and CBS-both syndicated radio stations-began network television programming.  In the late 1940′s, ABC, developed from the forcible split of two NBC radio stations, started its television network.

1941 Orson Welles's movie about William Randolph Hearst, Citizen Kane, premieres in New York City.

1941 The FCC lets 18 television stations begin commercial broadcasting. CBS and NBC begin immediately. Hardly anybody watches. Station WCBW demonstrates the news potential with its bulletins on the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

1950  Eventually, television began overtaking radio as the primary information resource. Murrow with Fred W. Friendly, starts, "Hear It Now" as a radio series, which becomes the first prestigious television news show in 1951.

1980 Ted Turner launched CNN, Cable News Network. CNN became the pioneer in 24-hour news coverage. In the 21st century, broadcast ventured into new realms, producing broadcasts via satellite radio like Sirius.

1988 The Internet opens to commercial users.

1993 Mosaic, the first World Wide Web browser, is released.

1994 Public awareness of the World Wide Web – the information superhighway on the Internet – awakens with news coverage of its potential. Yahoo! opens.

1995 The wiki is invented. ScreenHunter_655 Jul.jpg

1996 Rupert Murdoch starts Fox News Channel on cable TV.

1997 Blogging starts.

1998 Internet search engine Google starts up.

2000 Free online classified ads at Craigslist will grow to serve 500 cities with 30 million postings a month. This depletes newspaper classified ad sales, an important source of revenue.

2001 Wikipedia is created. Apple starts selling iPods.

2003 Second Life and MySpace starts.

2004 Facebook begins collecting friends. Flickr shares its first photographs. Podcasting starts.

2004 An Internet news aggregator, Digg.com, lets users determine which news stories are most important. Newspaper-rev-2013.jpg

2005 The Huffington Post internet news site mixes professional news gathering, opinion reporting and user-generated content.

2005 YouTube begins sharing videos.

2006 Twitter begins to tweet.

2007 Rupert Murdoch purchases Dow Jones & Co., publisher of The Wall Street Journal.

2010 The Internet is well established as part of most Americans' news consumption. Two-thirds get some news online each day. Most also get news from other media. On the other hand, there are questions about print and local media and even whether there is a future for the mass-market magazine anymore.

2011 Advertising in local newspapers and on local television stations is down, while advertising on the Internet is up. Some newspapers have ceased publication of their print versions in recent years in favor of developing their online editions. Examples include the Pulitzer Prize winning Rocky Mountain News and the Seattle Post-Intelligencer.

2012 The digital revolution has fostered a mobile age. People are connected wherever they are. Half of American adults own a smartphone and a quarter have a tablet. Cars have internet connections. Mobility enables news consumption which boosts journalism. Access to news is easy 24/7 with devices in peoples' pockets and laps, and on their desks and kitchen tables. Meanwhile, mobile platforms and social media channels are additional technology layers for news organizations to accommodate. Some giant technology firms – Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple – are working to help people consolidate their digital lives.

Facebook news groups, Youtube, and other Internet social communications channels are changing the way people find out about news stories.